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Bluebooking and Legal Citation: CSM for Books and Treatises

CSM Rules for Books and Treatises

CSM does not provide a recommended citation for the official Judicial Council of California Jury Instructions (CACI & CALCRIM), but CACI and CALCRIM provide their own recommended citations on the back of their title pages that corresponds closely with CSM's recommended format for the unofficial California jury instructions (BAJI & CALJIC.)

Warning!

 

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Caution by kaneiderdaniel/ CC BY SA 3.0

Do not rely solely on this page to Bluebook.

Please keep in mind:

  1. Your professor or court system may have special rules.
  2. Rules or situations may have changed since this page was last updated.
  3. We may be wrong! 

Double check with your professor, outside guides, and the Bluebook rules themselves.

If you notice a mistake, please contact caitlin.hunter@lls.edu.

Basic CSM Format for Books and Treatises

Basic Format

For a single volume book, use the format Nockleby et al., The Journalist's Guide to American Law (2013) p. 44. For a multivolume, multiedition treatise, add the volume number at the beginning and the edition before the date, in the format 1 Witkin & Epstein, Cal. Criminal Law (4th ed. 2012) Crimes Against the Person, § 152.

Formatting Tips

  • Everything is in normal type.
  • CSM §§ 3:1-3:7 provide extensive examples of citations to most major California and federal sources, including Witkin, Rutter, CEB, CJER, CalJur, AmJur, Black's and Ballentine's law dictionaries, Restatements, and ALR. For example:

Weil & Brown, Cal. Practice Guide: Civil Procedure Before Trial (The Rutter Group 1997) ¶ 10:106
7 Cal.Jur.3d (1989) Attorneys at Law, § 43

  • CSM § 3:5  provides a recommended format for the older, unofficial BAJI and CALJIC jury instructions:

BAJI No. 6.20
CALJIC No. 2.21.2 

The current official CACI and CALCRIM jury instructions were published after the most recent edition of the CSM but CACI and CALCRIM provide recommended citation formats on the back of their title pages that are substantially the same as the CSM's recommended formats for the unofficial instructions:

CACI No. 1
CACI No. VF-1
CALCRIM No. 1

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Finding Citation Information for Books and Treatises

In print, you can usually locate the author, title, publisher, edition, and year on the front and back of the title page.

Online, citation information is shown at the top of the screen. However, you may need to check further down or at the beginning of the book to locate the full title, the pin, or the edition. (See Screeencap tabs.)

Additionally, you will usually need to re-format the citation to ensure that it complies with CSM formatting. Watch out for the following:

  • Author: Use the author's last name in the following format:

    One author: Witkin
    Two authors: Witkin & Epstein
    Three or more authors: Levy et al.

  • Title: Although Lexis and Westlaw commonly abbreviate the title, CSM § 3:1[A] says that the only acceptable abbreviation is Cal. for California.
  • Date Parenthetical: The date parenthetical, with the publisher, edition, and year, should be placed after the title but before the pin. Usually, Lexis and Westlaw do not provide a date or place it after the pin. (See the tab Screencap of Witkin on Westlaw and the box below on Finding the Year for more details.)
  • Publisher: Identify the publisher for Rutter (as The Rutter Group), CEB/OnLaw (as Cont. Ed. Bar.), and California Center for Judicial Education and Research (as CJER.) Additionally, you may (but are not required to) identify the publisher if there are multiple editions of a book (CSM § 3:13.)
  • Edition: Provide the edition if there is more than one (CSM § 3:1[A] and CSM § 3:13).
  • Pin: For ordinary books, provide the page number (p.) or numbers (pp.)  after the date parenthetical. For treatises, practice guides, and encyclopedias divided into sections or paragraphs provide the subject (if any), the section (§) or paragraph (¶), and page number (if available), in the format:

4 Witkin, Summary of Cal. Law (9th ed. 1987) Real Property, § 800, pp. 977-978

2 Miller & Starr, Cal. Real Estate (2d ed.1989) § 3:11, p. 71

Eisenberg et al., Cal. Practice Guide: Civil Appeals and Writs (The Rutter Group 1997) ¶¶ 8:15 to 8:18, pp. 8-4 to 8-6

If there is a subject, make sure to add a comma between the subject and the section symbol. If using an online version, you can skip the page number (CSM § 3:1[A])

In print, the front and back of the title page usually provide all of the information you need. The format for the book below is:

Weller, Contested Statehood: Kosovo's Struggle for Independence (2009)

Author and Title Shown on Front of Title Page

Publication Date Shown on Back of Title Page

Westlaw provides the basic citation for Witkin at the top of the screen. However, in the title, only Cal. should be abbreviated. Additionally, the edition should be moved into the date parenthetical, the date parenthetical should be updated to include the supplement (See the box below on Finding the Year), and the entire date parenthetical should be moved before the pin. Within the pin, a comma should be inserted between the subject (Appeal) and section symbol. (CSM § 3:1.) The final format is:

9 Witkin, Cal. Procedure (5th ed. 2008 & 2016 supp.) Appeal, § 507 

Westlaw provides the basic citation for Cal. Jur. at the top of the screen. However, CSM §3:3 requires minor formatting corrections: delete the spaces in Cal.Jur.3d, add a comma between the subject (Secured Transactions) and section symbol, and add the date parenthetical before the pin (see the box below on Finding the Year.) The final format is:

57 Cal.Jur.3d (2010) Secured Transactions, § 183

 

Westlaw provides the basic citation for Rutter at the top of the screen. However, CSM § 3:1 also requires you to provide the author's last name(s), a title with no abbreviations other than Cal., a pincite to the paragraph rather than the chapter, a year, and the publisher for Rutter. The authors (Weil et al.) and title (Cal. Practice Guide: Civil Procedure Before Trial) are shown just below the basic citation. Look further down to identify pincites to the individual paragraph (¶) or paragraphs (¶¶). Before the pin, add a parenthetical with the publisher and year. For Rutter guides, you can generally use the year shown in the last updated date on top of the screen and in the copyright date at the end of the section. (See the box below on Finding the Year for more details.) The final format is:

Weil et al., Cal. Practice Guide: Civil Procedure Before Trial (The Rutter Group 2017) ¶¶ 3:487 to 3:488

Basic Citation Information

Identifying Specific Paragraphs

Lexis provides the basic citation for the treatise at the top of the screen. However, CSM § 3:1 also requires you to identify the author and edition, usually found at the beginning of treatise, and the year. For treatises and practice guides on Lexis, you can generally use the copyright year shown at the end or before the footnotes of each section. (See the box below on Finding the Year for more details.) Additionally, CSM § 3:1's example formats for many treatises and practice guides (including California Torts) include subjects, shown beneath the basic citation.  Because sections of treatises on Lexis are often long, you may also want to cite to a specific subsection, shown within the text (e.g. [2][a].) You will also need to re-format the volume- Lexis commonly provides the chapter after the volume (here, 4-45) but CSM only requires the volume (here, 4.) The final format is:

4 Levy et al., Cal. Torts (rev. ed. 2017) Defamation Defenses and Privileges, § 45.12[2][a]


Basic Citation At Top of Screen, with Subject and Subsections Beneath It

Check Beginning of Book for Additional Information, Such As Authors and Edition

Lexis provides the basic citation for the jury instructions at the top of the screen. The most recent edition of the CSM was published before the official California jury instructions were introduced and does not provide rules for them. However, the CSM rules for the unofficial jury instructions (CSM § 3:5) and the official jury instructions themselves suggest using the format:

CACI No. 2302

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Finding the Year

For ordinary books, CSM § 3:13 tells you to use the publication date, usually found on the front or back of the title page. 

For legal encyclopedias, treatises, and practice guides, CSM § 3:1 provides different rules depending on whether the source is published as a main volume with supplements or as a looseleaf. CSM § 3:1[a] explicitly allows you to cite these sources online but does not provide rules for finding the date online. Your best bet is probably to use the year shown as part of the copyright or last updated date at the top or bottom of the screen, which may or may not be the same as the print date. (See below and Screencap tabs for additional details.)

Supplements

Many major legal treatises and encyclopedias, such as Witkin, CalJur, and AmJur, are published in hardcover print volumes kept up-to-date by supplements- softcover pamphlets inserted in the back of the volume ("pocket parts") or placed next to the volume to identify any updates after the main volume was published. To find the year for these books, check for your section in both the main volume and any supplements and then format the date as shown in CSM § 3:1[a], [b], &[c]:

  • If you are citing text found only in the hardcover volume, use the year from the hardcover volume: (2006)
  • If you are citing text found only in the supplement, use the year from the supplement with "supp." after it: (2008 supp.)
  • If you are citing text from both the hardcover volume and the supplement, combine the two dates with &: (2006 & 2008 supp.)

A few online sources, such as Witkin on Westlaw, provide the main volume and supplement date and can be cited in the same format. However, most online sources, including CalJur and AmJur, only provide the date of the most recent supplement or copyright date. If citing the online version, your best bet is probably to use this year.

Looseleafs

Rutter, some other Westlaw treatises and practice guides, and most Lexis treatises and practice guides are published as looseleafs- binders containing hole punched pages that are periodically removed and replaced. For print looseleafs, use the date on the title page. (CSM § 3:1[a].) For online versions of looseleafs, your best bet is probably the last updated or copyright date at the top or bottom of the page. Usually, the year will be the same in print or online because most publishers update the treatise online at the same time as they replace the print looseleaf pages, including the title page. In either case, simply provide the year in the format:

4 Levy et al., Cal. Torts (rev. ed. 2017) Defamation Defenses and Privileges, § 45.12[2][a] 

Within a looseleaf,  individual pages may have last been replaced years or even decades before the title page, so CSM § 3:1[a] says that you may (but are not required to) add a second date parenthetical at the end of the citation identifying the individual page's revision date, as shown at the bottom of the print page, in the format:

4 Levy et al., Cal. Torts (rev. ed. 2017) Defamation Defenses and Privileges, § 45.12[2][a] (rel. 58-4/2015)

Check the Date of the Main Volume Where the Section Is Found

Locate the main volume where the section is found and check for the text of your section. If you can't find the text of your section in the main volume, it's likely in the supplement only (see next step.)

If you do find the text of your section, identify the year of publication. Here, it is shown on the title page as 2008.

Check For A Supplement in the Back of the Book or Next to the Book

Here, the supplement is inserted in the back of the book and is dated 2016.

Check If Your Section Is Edited or Added In the Supplement

Here, the supplement jumps directly from § 507 to § 509, indicating that § 507 and § 509 have been edited but § 508 has not.

Accordingly, the dates are:

9 Witkin, Cal. Procedure (5th ed. 2008 & 2016 supp.) Appeal, § 507 

9 Witkin, Cal. Procedure (5th ed. 2008) Appeal, § 508 

Witkin is unusual because it provides the print date online. The year of the main volume is shown at the top of the page- here, 2008. The year of the most recent supplement is shown just beneath it- here, 2016. If your section is updated in the supplement, a large link labeled Supplement appears at the top of the page indicating that you need to cite the supplement- here, as:

9 Witkin, Cal. Procedure (5th ed. 2008 & 2016 supp.) Appeal, § 507 

If there is no Supplement link, your section is not in the supplement and can be cited to the main volume, such as:

9 Witkin, Cal. Procedure (5th ed. 2008) Appeal, § 508 

 

CSM § 3:1[a] allows you to consult online versions of sources but does not clearly explain how to find the year. On Westlaw, your best bet is probably to use the year shown in the last updated date on top of the screen and in the copyright date at the end of the section. For looseleaf publications such as Rutter, this will generally be the same as the date on the print title page. For publications that use supplements such as CalJur and AmJur, this date will provide the reader with a sense of how current the information is but generally will not be the same as the date for the print. 

Here for example, the date shows that CalJur was last updated in May 2017, so you might use the format:

57 Cal.Jur.3d (2017) Secured Transactions, § 183
57 Cal.Jur.3d (2017) Secured Transactions, § 104

However, because Westlaw does not provide the main volume date for CalJur, you will not be able to provide the same year as you would if you used the print. Checking the print reveals that the print years for these sections are:

57 Cal.Jur.3d (2010) Secured Transactions, § 183
57 Cal.Jur.3d (2010 & 2017 supp.) Secured Transactions, § 104

Date of Last Update Shown at Top of Screen

Copyright Date and Supplement Shown at Bottom of Screen

Scrolling to the end of §104 shows you the copyright date and reveals that this section is included in the print supplement. However, because Westlaw only provides the year of the supplement, not the main volume, there is not enough information to replicate the print date.

CSM § 3:1[a] allows you to consult online versions of sources but does not clearly explain how to find the year. On Lexis, your best bet is probably to use the copyright year shown at the end or before the footnotes of the section. Here, for example, the source is copyright 2017, so you might cite it as:

4 Levy et al., Cal. Torts (rev. ed. 2017) Defamation Defenses and Privileges, § 45.12[2][a]

Like most sources on Lexis, California Torts is a looseleaf- a binder with hole punched pages that are removed and replaced at the same time as the online version is updated. Checking the title page of the print version confirms that 2017 is also the correct year for the print.

For looseleafs, CSM § 3:1[a] allows but does not require you to provide an extra parenthetical at the end of the citation identifying the date the individual page you are citing was last replaced, usually show at the bottom of the page in print. For example, the page below can be cited as:

4 Levy et al., Cal. Torts (rev. ed. 2017) Defamation Defenses and Privileges, § 45.12[2][a] (rel. 58-4/2015)

The more detailed citation tells readers that the treatise as a whole was last updated 2017 but this specific page was last replaced in 2015.

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